Boxwood Blight Information Resources
Boxwood blight (also called “box blight” in Europe), caused by the fungal pathogen Cylindrocladium buxicola, was reported for the first time in the U.S. at two North Carolina production nurseries in October, 2011 and a Virginia nursery in November. Boxwoods originating from an infected block of plants at one of the North Carolina nurseries were planted in two production fields in Virginia. The Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services and the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services are developing and implementing mitigation strategies aimed at aggressively removing the pathogen from infested fields and stopping the spread of this disease. For more info......
The causal agent of this disease, Cylindrocladium buxicola was first identified in the United Kingdom in the mid 1990’s and was found throughout Europe by 2000. In production nursery settings, C. buxicola , (also known as “box blight” or “boxwood blight”) causes severe defoliation and dieback. If left untreated a crop can be lost within a few weeks. In Europe, this disease also causes significant damage to plants in gardens, suggesting this pathogen could pose a threat to historic boxwood plantings in Virginia. For your information, a pest alert for C. buxicola is below from VA Tech. Now found in 8 states from North Carolina to Rhode Island.
Boxwood Blight found in Virginia, North Carolina and Connecticut
[To see the figures mentioned in this info, click here to go to the Nov/Dec VNLA Newsletter for photos and this info]
Boxwood blight (also called “box blight” in Europe), caused by the fungal pathogen Cylindrocladium buxicola, was reported for the first time in the U.S. at two North Carolina production nurseries in October, 2011. Boxwoods originating from an infected block of plants at one of the North Carolina nurseries were planted in two production fields in Virginia. The Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services and the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services are developing and implementing mitigation strategies aimed at aggressively removing the pathogen from infested fields and stopping the spread of this disease.
Boxwood blight was first reported in the United Kingdom in the early to mid 1990’s and had spread through Europe and New Zealand by 1998. The origin of the pathogen is unknown. It is not known how C. buxicola was initially introduced to the two North Carolina nurseries.
Signs, Symptoms, Impacts
C. buxicola infects leaves and branches of boxwoods, causing severe defoliation and dieback (Fig. 1). Infected branches develop long blackish-brown cankers that appear as stripes on stems (Fig. 2). In mild, humid conditions the fungus produces clusters of white spores visible to the naked eye. Development of these spore clusters can be stimulated by incubating infected branches in a moist chamber for 24 to 48 hours at 70°F to75°F (Fig. 3). The spore clusters consist of mycelial stalks (called conidiophores) bearing cylindrical spores. The spores can be viewed with the aid of a microscope (Fig. 4).
Repeated defoliation and multiple cankers can predispose plants to other diseases, such as Volutella blight, resulting in decline and eventual death. One unique characteristic of C. buxicola is that it does not appear to affect roots like other Cylindrocladium species (Fig. 5). This enables roots to regenerate and support new growth after a severe infection. Although boxwoods are not typically killed directly by C. buxicola, rapid defoliation renders boxwoods unmarketable and gardens unsightly. This disease thrives in humid environments, which are typically present in production nurseries and propagation houses. Once boxwood blight is established in production nurseries, regular use of fungicides is required to control the disease to produce a marketable product, thus significantly increasing production costs. Furthermore, C. buxicola has caused significant damage to boxwoods in European landscapes, which suggests this disease can potentially damage historic boxwood gardens in Virginia.
All known species and varieties of boxwoods (Buxus spp.) are susceptible to C. buxicola. The pathogen spreads via air currents. The spores are activated by water and are most infective during high humidity and when spread by wind-driven rain or water splashed from overhead irrigation. The pathogen forms resting propagules (called microslerotia) within infected plant tissue. C. buxicola survives as microsclerotia in fallen leaves, other plant debris and in soil for years even after plant material decomposes. Infested leaf litter has been shown to harbor viable C. buxicola propagules for at least 5 years in soil. Long distance spread of this disease occurs via movement of infected plants, infested plant debris, soil or equipment.
When C. buxicola is introduced into a production nursery, regular applications of a registered fungicide are required to control outbreaks to produce a marketable crop. Increasing space between plants may reduce humidity in the presence of sufficient air movement and reduce spore production and infection by this pathogen. Overhead irrigation generates the humid conditions optimal for disease development and should be avoided. A drip irrigation system or another suitable irrigation system that does not create excess moisture or humidity is recommended. C. buxicola is not known to be established in Virginia or any other region of the U.S. The current strategy of nurseries should be to prevent this disease from spreading. When purchasing plants and rooted cuttings, examine plants carefully for symptoms. Closely monitor the new stock for symptom development and quarantine new stock from other nursery stock for several months after purchase. Asymptomatic boxwoods can act as a “Trojan horse” in the nursery, since symptoms may develop later. Suspect symptoms should be reported to the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services or your local county Virginia Cooperative Extension agent (http://www.ext.vt.edu/offices/).
Diseases that can be confused with Boxwood Blight
Symptoms of several other diseases of boxwood, including Volutella blight and root rot diseases, could be confused with box blight. Although Volutella may follow Cylindrocladium infection, Volutella buxi is also an opportunistic pathogen that is common on boxwood stems and foliage following spring frost injury (Fig. 6). Like Cylindrocladium, it causes dieback of individual shoots but does not infect the roots. Volutella can be distinguished from Cylindrocladium by the color and shape of the spore masses: in contrast to the white stellate spore clusters (Fig. 3) of Cylindrocladium buxicola, Volutella forms salmon-colored amorphous spore masses (Fig. 7). Fungicides are not effective for controlling Volutella blight.
Nematode feeding and fungal root rot diseases of boxwood, such as Phytophthora root rot and English boxwood decline, cause a more general dieback of the plant. Browning of fibrous roots is obvious when soil is washed from roots (Fig. 8). These soil-borne pathogens do not directly infect the stems and no fruiting structures are formed on stems or leaves. Cultural problems, such as poor drainage or deep planting, can also cause a general dieback on boxwood.
Prepared by: Norm Dart, Virginia State Plant Pathologist, Mary Ann Hansen, VA Tech Plant Disease Clinic, and Elizabeth Bush, Extension Plant Pathologist